What is Database? Types, Examples and Advantages – Intellipaat

Listed below are some topics that will help you understand the concept of databases more in-depth and in simple terms. We’ll start by learning about the data first.

What is

  • data? What
  • is a database?
  • Database Evolution Database Components Database Applications Database Types Database Architecture Database Advantages Database Languages Database

  • Management System
  • Database Examples

  • Database
  • Advantages

  • of
  • data

  • Disadvantages of the
  • database management

  • system


Forward-thinking companies use databases to their advantage by thinking beyond basic data storage and transaction needs and analyzing their data from multiple systems.

Learn how to become a database administrator:

What is data?

Data is nothing more than information that is collected in various formats such as numbers, text, media, and others. In the context of computing, data can be converted into a binary digital form that allows flexibility to move and process efficiently. For example, Intellipaat may have data such as the name, age and educational qualification of its students, details of the various courses it offers, etc.

The term “data” can be used in both singular and plural. From time to time, we come across the term raw data. It is nothing more than data in its most basic digital format. In its early days, when the importance of data began to gain momentum, terms such as “electronic data processing” or simply “data processing” became widely used in the IT industry.

As data grew exponentially over the years, data measurement units also continued to grow. PwC mentioned that there were 4.4 ZB (zettabytes) of data generated in 2019 worldwide. On the other hand, IDC continued to predict that it will grow to 175 ZB by 2025. Databases, database management systems (DBMS), and relational database management systems (RDBMS) quickly emerged to organize all this data.

Learning new technologies

What is a database

? A database is


systematic or organized collection of related information that is stored in such a way that it can be easily accessed, retrieved, managed, and updated. It’s where all the data is stored, much like a library that houses a wide range of books of different genres. Think of data as books.

In a database, you can organize data into rows and columns in table form. Indexing the data makes it easy to find and retrieve it again when needed. Many websites on the World Wide Web are managed with the help of databases. To create a database so that users can access data through a single set of software programs, database drivers are used.

MySQL, SQL Server, MongoDB, Oracle Database, PostgreSQL, Informix, Sybase, etc. are examples of different databases. These modern databases are managed by DBMS. Structured query language, or SQL, as it is more widely known, is used to operate on data in a database.

You should also check the differences between popular databases i.e. Mongodb Vs Postgresql.

A database is typically represented by a cylindrical structure.



started with a file-based system about 50 years ago. In due course, it has gone through generations of evolution.

  • Databases were first introduced in 1968 as flat file-based databases
  • .

  • Then the Hierarchical Database was born which lasted until 1980. IBM’s first database, IMS (Information Management System) was based on this.
  • Charles Bachman developed the first network data model, called the Integrated Data Store (IDS). It was introduced in the early 1960s and standardized in 1971.
  • In 1970, the Relational Database was introduced.
  • Today, it is the era of relational database and database management.

Database hardware components


Physical electronic devices such as storage devices, I/O devices, and many more. It can act as an interface between computers and real-world systems.


Programs to manage and control the database in general. DBMS itself is software. The operating system, database application programs that allow data access in DBMS, network software that shares data, etc. are all examples.



It is the information that is collected, stored, accessed and processed by a DBMS, for example, real data, operational data and metadata


Procedure: This is

the specific set of instructions and rules for using a database to

design and run the DBMS, as well as to instruct users on how to operate and manage it. Database access language


This helps to export and access data from the database. To enter new data or update or retrieve data from the database, you can type commands in the database access language. DBMS then displays the results in a user-readable format.

Watch this video on Oracle SQL Tutorial for Beginners



application applications

In some applications, you will find better Data Warehouse. Find out in Data Warehouse vs Database Blog.

Types of databases

Relational database:

It is the most efficient way to access structured information. The data is organized into a set of tables that have columns and rows.

Object-oriented database: Here,

data is represented in the form of objects, as in object-oriented programming


Distributed database:

You have two or more files located in different places. The database can be in the same physical location on multiple computers or dispersed across different networks.

NoSQL database: NoSQL

is a non-relational database that contains unstructured and semi-structured data. It increased in popularity as web applications became commonly used and became more complex.

Graphical database: Stores data in the

form of entities and the relationships between them

. Cloud database: This


runs on a

cloud computing platform, and access is provided “as a service.”



CDB is located, stored, and maintained in a single, centralized location, for example, a mainframe, desktop CPU

, or server.

Operational database:

Also known as OLTP or online transactional processing database, it is designed to create or update large amounts of data and store transactions made by multiple users in real time


Data warehouses


It is a central repository of data. Maintains current and historical data in one location for enterprise-wide analytical reporting.


architecture in companies and organizations involves the application of programming languages to design software. It mainly involves the design, implementation, development and maintenance of the computer programs that store and manage data for companies.

The architecture determines the design of a DBMS. The architecture can be single-tier or multi-tier, such as 1-tier architecture, 2-tier architecture, 3-tier architecture, n-tier architecture, and so on.

Advantages of databases

  • Minimal data redundancy
  • Improved data security Greater

  • consistency
  • Fewer upgrade errors
  • Reduced data

  • entry, storage, and retrieval costs
  • Improved data access through host and query languages Increased data
  • integrity

of application

programs Check out our SQL course for complete control of SQL concepts.


DBMS provides the right language to users to help query databases and updates. It essentially creates and maintains the database. Some examples of database languages are SQL, Oracle, dBase, MS Access, FoxPro, etc. Database languages are commonly divided into Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Control Language (DCL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), and Transaction Control Language (TCL).

Data Definition Language (

DDL): Helps define data and its relationship to other data types and creates databases, files, tables, and dictionaries of data within databases

. Data Control Language (DCL): Controls access

to data and the database. Data Manipulation Language (DML):

Supports basic data manipulation operations, such as allowing users to insert, retrieve, update, and delete data from

the database.

Transaction Control Language (TCL): Manages database changes made by the DML statement

Intellipaat offers database courses for its students by industry experts. Enroll now and get ready to learn more.

Database Management System

The database management system or DBMS is a type of software that helps manage a database. It is used to search and store information within a database. It can be modified according to the user’s needs. Adds a layer of security to the database.



Some database examples are:

Microsoft SQL Server

SQL Server


developed by Microsoft, is a relational database management system. It is based on SQL, the standard query language for database management systems.


Database Developed by Oracle Corporation, Oracle Database is based on a multi-model DBMS. It is widely used when processing online transactions.


Based on Structured Query Language (SQL), MySQL is a relational database management system. It is used in e-commerce platforms, data storage, etc. It is widely used as a web database management system.



is a relational database management system developed by IBM. It is designed to analyze, store and retrieve data efficiently.


An open source relational database management system, PostgreSQL is free to use. It is widely used for data storage.

Advantages of the database management system

The data is stored in a more

  • orderly manner and therefore more
  • data can be stored. A DBMS is a

  • highly secure platform, so sensitive and high-risk data can also be stored and accessed securely
  • .

  • DBMS makes data handling very simple.
  • Data inconsistency is greatly reduced by a Well-designed DBMS.
  • Data can be accessed quickly.

Disadvantages of database management system

  • Maintaining the software and hardware required
  • for a DBMS is often expensive. The more data you enter into the DBMS,

  • the more disk space it will occupy
  • . Using DBMS

  • may seem very difficult for someone with a non-technical background.
  • Since all data is stored in a DBMS, If the software fails, all of the organization’s data could be lost.


With the help of databases and other BI tools and

IT tools, organizational professionals can make use of organized data to facilitate better and effective decision making, agility and scalability. Different types of databases, along with changes in technology approaches, advancements in automation, and the cloud are pushing databases in new directions.

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